Tongue Tie useful resources
You can find more information about tongue tie and lips tie here.

 

Facebook Pages


Tongue & Lip Tie Support Australia

The Gentle Breastfeeder (Australia)

Tongue Tie Babies Support Group (International)

Tongue Tied Adults Support Group

 

Other tongue tie websites


Dr Larry Kotlow (US)

Tonguetie.net


Scientific research reference list:

 

Ref A - Ankyloglossia and Breastfeeding
1. Amir et al, Review of tongue-tie release at a tertiary maternity hospital. Journal
Paediatric Child Health 2005 May-Jun;41(5-6):243-5.
2. Ballard JL, Auer CE, Khoury JC. Ankyloglossia: assessment, incidence, and effect
of frenuloplasty on the breastfeeding dyad. Pediatrics. 2002 Nov;110(5)
3. Berry J et al, A Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Trial of Tongue-Tie
Division and Its Immediate Effect on Breastfeeding Medicine. July 2012, 7(3):
189-193.
4. Buryk M, Bloom D, Shope T Efficacy of neonatal release of ankyloglossia: a
randomized trial. Pediatrics 2011 Aug;128(2):280-8.NHMRC
5. Cho Anthony ,When should you treat tongue-tie in a newborn? Journal of Family
Practice, 2010 Volume: 59 Issue: 12 Pages: 712a-712b
6. Coryllos, E. Congenital Tongue Tie and its impact on Breastfeeding, J Human
Lactation Summer 2004 pp1-6
7. Dollberg S, Botzer E, Grunis E, Mimouni FB. Immediate nipple pain relief after
frenotomy in breast-fed infants with ankyloglossia: a randomized, prospective
study. J Pediatr Surg 2006 Sep;41(9):1598-600
8. Edmunds J, Miles SC, Fullbrook P. Tongue-tie and breastfeeding: a review of the
literature. Breastfeed Rev. 2011 Mar
9. Forlenza GP, Paradise Black NM, McNamara EG, Sullivan SE. Ankyloglossia,
exclusive breastfeeding, and failure to thrive. Paediatrics 2010
Jun;125(6):e15004.
10. Geddes DT, Langton DB, Gollow I, Jacobs LA, Hartmann PE, Simmer K,
Frenulotomy for breastfeeding infants with ankyloglossia: effect on milk
removal and sucking mechanism as imaged by ultrasound. Paediatrics 2008
Jul;122(1):e188-94.
11. Hogan M, Westcott C, Griffith M. Randomized controlled trial of division of
tongue tie in infants with feeding problems. J Pediatr Child Health.2005 MayJune;
41. 
12. Ingram, J et al, The development of a tongue assessment tool to assist with
tongue-tie identification
13. Karabulut R et al. Ankyloglossia and effects on breast-feeding, speech problems
and mechanical/social issues in children. B-ENT 2008;4(2):81-5.
14. Khoo AK, Dabbas N, Sudhakaran N, Ade-Ajayi N, Patel S. Nipple pain at
presentation predicts success of tongue-tie division for breastfeeding problems.
Eur J Pediatr Surg 2009 Dec;19(6):370-3.
15. Knox, I. Tongue Tie and Frenotomy in breastfeeding. NeoReviews Vol. 11 No. 9
September 1, 2010 pp. e513 -e519
16. Kotlow, L. SCIENTIFIC ARTICLE: Lasers and Soft Tissue Treatments for the
Pediatric Dental, Alpha Omegan, Volume 101, Number 3, pp 140-151
17. Kotlow, L. The influence of the maxillary frenum on the development and
pattern of dental caries on anterior teeth in breastfeeding infants: Prevention,
diagnosis and treatment. Journal of Human Lactation, 2010; 26(3), 304-308.
18. Kotlow L. Diagnosis and treatment of ankyloglossia and tied maxillary fraenum
in infants using Er:YAG and 1064 diode lasers. Eur Arch Paediatric Dent. 2011
Apr;12(2):106-12.
19. Kotlow, L, Ankyloglossia (tongue-tie): A diagnostic and treatment quandary,
Pediatric Dentistry section of Quintessence International 1999;30:259-262
20. Notestine GE. The importance of the identification of ankyloglossia (short
lingual frenulum) as a cause of breastfeeding problems. J Hum Lact 1990
Sep;6(3):113-5.
21. Messener AH, Lakakea. The effect of ankyloglossia on speech in children.
Otolaryngol Head Neck 2002 Dec;127(6):539-45.
22. Pang, P et al. Laser Energy in Oral Soft Tissue Applications, Science and Research
Committee, Academy of Laser Dentistry, J Laser Dent 2010 18 (3) 121-131
23. Pradhan S, Yasmine E, Mehta A. Management of Posterior Ankloglossia using the
Er, Cr:YSGG Laser. Int J Laer Dent 2012;2(2):41-46
24. Srinivasan A, Dobrich C, Mitnick H, Feldman P, Srinivasan A. Ankyloglossia in
breastfeeding infants: the effect of frenotomy on maternal nipple pain and latch.
Breastfeed Med. 2006 Winter;1(4):216-24.
25. Tanya et al. Ankyloglossia: Treatment With Surgical Lasers – A Case Report
Journal of Dental and Medical Volume 13, Issue 7 Ver. II (July. 2014), PP 61-64 
26. Wiessinger D, Breastfeeding Difficulties as a Result of Tight Lingual and Labial
Frena: A Case Report. 2013 Journal Citation Reports® (Thomson Reuters, 2014)
27. Tongue-tie and frenotomy in infants with breastfeeding difficulties: achieving a
balance. Power RF1, Murphy JF1. Arch Dis Child. 2015 May;100(5):489-94. doi:
10.1136/archdischild-2014-306211. Epub 2014 Nov 7

Ref B – Breastfeeding Benefits
1. Ueda, T et al, Influence of psychological stress on suckling-induced pulsatile
oxytocin release, Obstet Gynecol. 1994 Aug;84(2):259-62.
2. Victora, Cesar G et al Breastfeeding in the 21st century: epidemiology,
mechanisms, and lifelong effect. The Lancet Breastfeeding Series Group, Vol 387
January 30, 2016
3. NHMRC Infant Feeding Guidelines – Information for Health Workers, National
Health and Medical Research Council Research Centre Feeding 2012
4. Horta BL et al. Evidence on the long-term effects of breastfeeding: systematic
reviews and meta-analyses. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2007.
5. Ip S et al , Breastfeeding and maternal and infant health outcomes in developed
countries. AHRQ Publication No. 07-E007. Rockville, MD: Agency for
Healthcare Research and Quality, 2007.
6. Exclusive Breastfeeding and Risk of Dental Malocclusion. Australian Research
Centre for Population Oral Health, School of Dentistry, University of Adelaide,
Adelaide, Australia, Jul 2015.
7. Kramer MS, Kakuma R, Optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding (Systemic
Review) 2009, (edited 2009). Cochrane Database
8. Effect of delivery room routines on success of first breast-feed. Lancet 1990;
336: 1105-07
9. Goldman AS. The immune system of human milk: antimicrobial, antiinflammatory
and immunomodulating properties. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1993
Aug;12(8):664-71
10. Slade HB, Schwartz SA. Mucosal immunity: the immunology of breast milk. J
Allergy Clin Immunol 1987 Sep;80(3 Pt 1):348-58
11. Immunology of Milk and the Neonate. Edited by J. Mestecky et al. Plenum Press,
1991.
12. Breastfeeding and Childhood Leukemia Incidence. A Meta-analysis and
Systematic Review. JAMA Pediatr. 2015;169(6):e151025.
doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.1025

Ref C – Breastfeeding Biomechanics
1. Elad David et al, Biomechanics of milk extraction during breast-feeding, PNAS
2013 Early Edition www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1319798111
2. Ramsay, D. T (GEDDES) et al, Anatomy of the lactating human breast redefined
with ultrasound imaging J. Anat.(2005) 206, pp525–534
3. Geddes DT, Langton DB, Gollow I, Jacobs LA, Hartmann PE, Simmer K,
Frenulotomy for breastfeeding infants with ankyloglossia: effect on milk
removal and sucking mechanism as imaged by ultrasound. Paediatrics 2008
Jul;122(1):e188-94.


Ref D – Breastfeeding, Malocclusion & Orofacial development
1. Peres KG et al, Exclusive breastfeeding and risk of dental malocclusion, Pediatrics,
July 2015, Volume 136 Issue 1.
2. Sum et al. Association of breastfeeding and three-dimensional dental arch
relationships in primary dentition. BMC Oral Health. 2015; 15: 30.
3. Victora, Cesar G et al Breastfeeding in the 21st century: epidemiology,
mechanisms, and lifelong effect. The Lancet Breastfeeding Series Group, Vol 387
January 30, 2016)
4. Dezio M et al Tongue-tie, from embryology to treatment: a literature review,
Journal of Pediatric and Neonatal Individualized Medicine 2015;4(1):e040101
5. Karjaleinen et al. Association between early weaning, non-nutritive sucking
habits and occlusal anomalies in 3 year old Finnish children. Int J Paediatr Dent.
1999-9: 169-73
6. Page DC. “Real” early orthodontic treatment from birth to age 8. Funct Orthod.
Spring-Summer; (1-2):,56-8 2003; 20:48-54

Ref E - Growth and urgency of treatment
1. Liu, Yi-Ping , Behrents, Rolf G., and Buschang, Peter H. (2010) Mandibular Growth,
Remodelling, and Maturation During Infancy and Early Childhood. The Angle
Orthodontist: January 2010, Vol. 80, No. 1, pp. 97-105.

Ref F – General Anaesthetics
1. Sprung, J et al. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder after early exposure to
procedures requiring general anesthesia. In Mayo Clinic Proceedings 2012 Feb
29 (Vol. 87, No. 2, pp. 120-129). Elsevier.
2. Bong CL et al. The effects of exposure to general anesthesia in infancy on
academic performance at age 12. Anesthesia & Analgesia. 2013 Dec
1;117(6):1419-28
3. Flick, R et al. Cognitive and behavioral outcomes after early exposure to
anesthesia and surgery. Pediatrics. 2011 Nov 1;128(5):e1053-61
4. Backeljauw B, et al. Cognition and brain structure following early childhood
surgery with anesthesia. Pediatrics. 2015 Jul 1;136(1):e1-2

Ref G – Implications of a Descended Tongue Posture & Tongue Dysfunction across a life-span
1. Cockley, L et al. The Ortho[dontic] missing link. Could it be tied to the tongue?
Journal of American Orthodontic Society Winter 2015 p 18-21
2. Jefferson, Y (DMD, MAGD) Mouth breathing: Adverse effects on facial growth,
health, academics, and behavior, General Dentistry January/February 2010
3. Karahan, S et al. Ankyloglossia in dogs: a morphological and
immunohistochemical study. Anat Histo Embryol 2009 Apr;38(2):118-21.
4. Kanao, Akira et al. Application of functional orthodontic appliance to treatment
of mandibular retrusion syndrome. Japanese Journal of Clinical Dentistry for
children 2009 April (Vol.14 No.4)
5. Karabulut R, et al. Ankyloglossia and effects on breast-feeding, speech problems
and mechanical/social issues in children. B ENT 2008;4(2):81-5.
6. Kieser JA et al. The role of oral soft tissues in swallowing function: what can the
tongue pressure tell us? Australian Dental Journal 2014; 59 (1 supp): 155-161
7. Kotlow, L. The influence of the maxillary frenum on the development and
pattern of dental caries on anterior teeth in breastfeeding infants: Prevention,
diagnosis and treatment. Journal of Human Lactation, 2010; 26(3), 304-308.
8. Mason and Franklin. Orofacial Myofunctional disorders and Otaryngologists.
Otaryngology 2010 Volume 4 Issue 4
9. Meenakshi, S. Assessment of Lingual Frenulum Lengths in Skeletal
Malocclusion, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 2014 Mar, Vol-8(3):
202-204
10. Northcutt, M The Lingual Fraenum, Journal of Clinical Orthodontics, 2009; Vol 43:
No 9, p 557-565
11. Olivi, G et al, Lingual Frenectomy: functional evaluation and new therapeutical
approach, European Journal of Pediatric Dentistry, 2/2012, Vol 13, p 101-106
12. Thailander, Birgit Thailander et al. Prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic
treatment need in children and adolescence. European Journal of Orthodontics;
Apr 1, 2001; 23, 2; ProQuest Health and Medical Complete, p 155-167
13. Peng, C. Differential diagnosis between infantile and mature swallowing with
ultrasonography European Journal of Orthodontics 25 (2003) 451–456
14. Schmidt, JE et al. Effects of tongue position on mandibular muscle activity and
heart rate function. Journal of Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Patholgoy,
Radiology and Endodontics 2009 Dec;108(6):881-8
15. Scopa, F. Glosso-postural syndrome, Annali di Stomatologia 2005 A journal of
Odontostomatologic Sciences; LIV (1): 27-34

Ref H - Use of lasers
1. Adrian JC. (1979) Effects of carbon dioxide laser radiation on oral soft tissue. Mil
Med;144(2):83-89
2. Aras, M H and Gungormis, M Comparison of Diode Laser and Er:YAG Lasers in
the Treatment of Ankyloglossia. Photomedicine and Laser Surgery Volume 28,
Number 2, 2010,173-177
3. Cecere W, Liebow C. (1990) Laser causes greater growth factor release than
scalpel. Lasers Surg Med ; 10(Suppl 2):22, Abstract 79.
4. Fisher SE, Frame JW, Browne RM, Tranter RMD. (1983) A comparative
histological study of wound healing following CO2 laser and conventional
surgical excision of canine buccal mucosa. Arch Oral Biol; 28(4): 287-291
5. Goldman L, Goldman B, Van Lieu N.(1987) Current laser dentistry. Lasers Surg
Med 6(6):559-562.
6. Kotlow, L. SCIENTIFIC ARTICLE: Lasers and Soft Tissue Treatments for the
Pediatric Dental, Alpha Omegan, Volume 101, Number 3, pp 140-151
7. Luomanen M, Meurman JH, Lehto V-P. (1987) Extracellular matrix in healing
CO2 laser incision wound. J Oral Pathol; 16 (6) 322-331
8. Myers TD, Myers WD, Stone RM (1989) First soft tissue study utilizing a pulsed
Nd:YAG . Northwest Dent;68 (2):14-17
9. Olivi, Giovanni, Chaumanet, Gilles, Genovese , Maria Daniela, Beneduce, Carla
Andreana, Sebastiano (2010), Er,Cr:YSGG laser labial frenectomy: A clinical
retrospective evaluation of 156 consecutive cases, Journal Clinical Dentistry,
May/June, 126-133
10. Pié-Sánchez, España-Tost, Arnabat-Domínguez, Gay-Escoda (2012) Comparative
study of upper lip frenectomy with the CO2 laser versus the Er, Cr: YSGG laser
Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. Mar 1;17 (2):e228-32.
11. Research, Science and Therapy Committee of the American Academy of
Periodontology. Lasers in Periodontics. (2002) J Periodontol. Oct;73(10):1231-9.
12. Ryu SW, Lee SH, Yoon HJ (2012), A comparative histological and
immunehistochemical study of wound healing following incision with a scalpel,
CO2 laser or Er, Cr:YSGG laser in the guinea pig oral mucosa, Acta Odontol Scand;
Dec 70 (6) : 448-54
13. Science and Research Committee, Academy of Laser Dentistry (2010) Position
Paper: Laser Energy in Oral Soft Tissue Applications, J Laser Dent;18(3):123-131
14. Tanya, Priya and Pallavi Patil (2014) Ankyloglossia: Treatment with Surgical Lasers – A
Case Report IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences Volume 13, Issue 7 Ver. II (July),
pp 61-64
15. Walsh, L (2003) The current status of laser applications in dentistry, Australian
Dental Journal; 48:(3):146-155
16. Yamamoto H, Okabe H, Ooya K, Hanaoka S, Ohta S, Kataoka K. (1972) Laser
effect on vital oral tissues: A preliminary investigation. J Oral Pathol 1(6), 256-
264
17. Zaffe D, Vitale MC, Martignone A, Scarpelli F, Botticelli AR.(2004) Morphological,
histochemical, and immunocytochemical study of CO2 Photomed Laser Surg;
22(3) 185-189

Ref I - Literature review on Tongue Ties
1. Dezio M et al Tongue-tie, from embryology to treatment: a literature review,
Journal of Pediatric and Neonatal Individualized Medicine 2015;4(1):e040101
2. Edmunds J1 et al. Tongue-tie and breastfeeding: a review of the literature.
Effects of Tongue Ties on the Mouth Throughout Life. Breastfeed Rev. 2011
Mar;19(1):19-26
3. Francis, O ,et al Treatment of Ankyloglossia and Breastfeeding Outcomes: A
Systematic Review PEDIATRICS Volume 135, number 6, June 2015, pp1459-1466

Ref J – Maxillary (Upper) lip ties, aerophagia and breastfeeding
1. Chitkara DK, et al . Aerophagia in children: characterization of a functional
gastrointestinal disorder. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2005;17(4):518-522
2. Kotlow, L. Infant Reflux and Aerophagia Associated with the Maxillary Lip-tie
and Ankyloglossia. Clinical Lactation, 2011 Vol. 2-4, 25-29
3. Kotlow L. Infant Gastroesophageal Reflux (GER-Benign Infant Acid Reflux) or
just Plain Aerophagia? International Journal of Child Health and Nutrition.
2016;5.
4. Siegel, S, Aerophagia Induced Reflux in Breastfeeding Infants With
Ankyloglossia and Shortened Maxillary Labial Frenula Int J Clin Pediatr.
2016;5(1):6-8
5. Siegel S. Aerophagia Induced Reflux Associated with Lip and Tongue Tie in
Breastfeeding Infants. J Pediatrics. 2016;137(supplement 3).

Ref K – Effects and Implications of Mouth Breathing
1. Han JN, Stegen K, Simkens K, Cauberghs M, Schepers R, Van den Bergh O,
Clément J, Van de Woestijne KP, Unsteadiness of breathing in patients with
hyperventilation syndrome and anxiety disorders, Eur Respir J 1997; 10: p. 167–
176.
2. Raising CO2 can decrease nasal resistance and treat seasonal rhinitis. Casale,
2008 J Allergy Clin Immunol. 121, 105-109
3. Treatment of mast cells with carbon dioxide suppresses degranulation via a
novel mechanism involving repression of increased intracellular calcium levels
J. W. Strider, C. G. Masterson & P. L. Durham. Center for Biomedical & Life
Sciences, Missouri State University, Springfield, MO, USA
4. Respiratory control and respiratory plasticity become habitually maladaptive
via long-term facilitation (LTF). Baker et al. 2001 Respiratory plasticity:
differential actions of continuous and episodic hypoxia and hypocapnia. Resp
Phys, 129, 25-35
5. Marcus et al. Developmental Aspects of the Upper Respiratory Airway - Report
from an NHLBI workshop, March 5-6, 2009 Proc Am Thorac Soc, 15, 6
6. Bowler SD, Green A, Mitchell CA, Buteyko breathing techniques in asthma: a
blinded randomised controlled trial, Med J of Australia 1998; 169: p. 575-578. 
7. Patrick McHugh, Fergus Aitcheson, Bruce Duncan and Frank Houghton Buteyko
Breathing Technique for asthma: an effective intervention NZMJ 12 December
2003 V 116 No 1187
8. Zahra Mohamed Hassan, Nermine Mounir Riad, Fatma Hassan Ahmed. Effect of
Buteyko breathing technique on patients with bronchial asthma. Egyptian
Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis (2012) 61, 235–241
9. High nitric oxide production in human paranasal sinuses. Lundberg JO, FarkasSzallasi
T, Weitzberg E, Rinder J, Lidholm J, Anggaard A, Hokfelt T, Lundberg JM,
Alving K. Nat Med 1995 April; 1 (4): 370-3.
10. Prevalence of poor sleep quality and its relationship with body mass index
among teenagers: evidence from Taiwan. Sch Health. 2013 Aug;83(8):582-8.
11. The Epidemiology of Sleep Quality, Sleep Patterns, Consumption of Caffeinated
Beverages, and Khat Use among Ethiopian College Students. Seblewengel
Lemma, Sheila V. Patel, Yared A. Tarekegn, Mahlet G. Tadesse, Yemane Berhane
Bizu Gelaye,and Michelle A. Williams. Addis Continental Institute of Public
Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Multidisciplinary International Research Training
Program, Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, 677
Huntington Avenue, Kresge 501, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Department of
Mathematics & Statistics, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20057, USA
12. H. Brown Otopalik DDS American Journal of Orthodontics - Dentofacial
Orthopedics Vol. 113 No. 6 June 1998
13. Ramirez-Yanez, German O., Farrell, Chris. Soft Tissue Dysfunction: a missing clue
when treating malocclusions.. International Journal of Functional Orthopedics
(2005)
14. Souki BQ, Pimenta GB, Souki MQ, Franco LP, Becker HM, Pinto JA, Prevalence of
malocclusion among mouth breathing children: do expectations meet reality?
Federal University of Minas Gerais, Outpatient Clinic for Mouth-Breathers, Belo
Horizonte, Brazil. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2009 May; 73(5): p.767-773
15. Abreu RR, Rocha RL, Lamounier JA, Guerra AF. Etiology, clinical manifestations
and concurrent findings in mouth-breathing children. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2008 NovDec;
84(6): p.529-535.
16. Costa JR, Pereira SR, Weckx LL, Pignatari SN, Uema SF. Radiological evaluation of
facial types in mouth breathing children: a retrospective study. Int J Orthod
Milwaukee. 2008 Winter; 19(4): p. 13-16

Ref L : Postural implications of Tongue Ties and mouth breathing
1. Dezio M et al Tongue-tie, from embryology to treatment: a literature review,
Journal of Pediatric and Neonatal Individualized Medicine 2015;4(1):e040101 
2. Olivi, G et al, Lingual Frenectomy: functional evaluation and new therapeutical
approach, European Journal of Pediatric Dentistry, 2/2012, Vol 13, p 101-106
3. Scopa, F. Glosso-postural syndrome, Annali di Stomatologia 2005 (A journal of
Odontostomatologic Sciences); LIV (1): 27-34
4. Michelotti A, Manzo P, Farella M, Martina R. [Occlusion and posture: is there
evidence of correlation?]. [Article in Italian]. Minerva Stomatol. 1999;48(11):525-
34.
5. Cuccia A, Caradonna C. The relationship between the stomatognathic system and
body posture. Clinics. 2009;64(1):61-6.
6. Dezio M, Piras A, Gallottini L, Denotti G. Tongue-tie, from embriology to
treatment: a literature review. J Pediatr Neonat Individual Med.
2015;4(1):e040101. doi: 10.7363/040101.
7. Janda V. Muscle Function Testing. London: Butterworth, 1983.
8. Lopez D. Assessing the Effects of Tongue-Tie: Osteopathic Considerations, 2015.
http://www.osteopathyny.com/assess-impact-tongue-tie-patients-osteopathicconsiderations/
9. Page P, Frank CC, Lardner R. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2010, 312
http://www.jandacrossedsyndromes.com/

Ref M – Respiration/airways
1. Harvold, EP et al. Primate experiments on oral respiration Am J Orthodontics
1981 Apr;79(4):359-72.
2. Huang Yu-Shu et al, Short Lingual Frenulum and Obstructive Sleep Apnea in
Children, Int J Pediatr Res 2015, 1:1
3. Conclusion: Mouth breathing appears to be associated with an increased risk for
cot death. Eur J Pediatr, 1999 Nov;158 (11):896-901

Ref N - Speech and Language development
1. Fernando, Carmen. Tongue Tie – From Confusion to Clarity. A guide to the
diagnosis and treatment of Ankyloglossia. Tandem Publications 1998 and 2016.
2. Broderer, Alison et al. Sensorimotor influences on speech perception in infancy Proc
Natl Acad Sci U S A, 112(44), 13531-13536. 
3. Karabulut R et al. Ankyloglossia and effects on breast-feeding, speech problems
and mechanical/social issues in children. B-ENT 2008;4(2):81-5
4. Messener AH, Lakakea. The effect of ankyloglossia on speech in children.
Otolaryngol Head Neck 2002 Dec;127(6):539-45.
5. Walls, A. , Pierce, M., Wang, H., Steehler, A., Steehler, M., & Harley, E. H., Jr.
(2014). Parental perception of speech and tongue mobility in three-year olds
after neonatal frenotomy. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol, 2014 , 78(1), 128-131.

Ref O - Soft Tissue Dysfunction, Breathing and Malocclusion
1. Dante Bresolin, D.D.S., M.S.D., Peter A. Sharpiro, D.D.S., M.S.D., Gail G. Shapiro,
G.M.D., Chapko, M.K. Ph. D., and Dassel, S. M.D. Mouth breathing in allergic
children: Its relationship to dentofacial development.. Brasilia, D.F., Brazil, and
Seattle, Wash. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
1983.
2. Souki BQ, Pimenta GB, Souki MQ, Franco LP, Becker HM, Pinto JA, Prevalence of
malocclusion among mouth breathing children: do expectations meet reality?
Federal University of Minas Gerais, Outpatient Clinic for Mouth-Breathers, Belo
Horizonte, Brazil. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2009 May; 73(5): p.767-773
3. Abreu RR, Rocha RL, Lamounier JA, Guerra AF. Etiology, clinical manifestations
and concurrent findings in mouth-breathing children. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2008 NovDec;
84(6): p.529-535
4. Costa JR, Pereira SR, Weckx LL, Pignatari SN, Uema SF. Radiological evaluation of
facial types in mouth breathing children: a retrospective study. Int J Orthod
Milwaukee. 2008 Winter; 19(4): p. 13-16
5. Flutter J. The negative effect of mouth breathing on the body and development
of the child. Int J Orthod Milwaukee. 2006 Summer; 17(2): p. 31-37
6. Katherine W. L. Vig, BDS, MS, FDS. Nasal Obstruction and Facial Growth: The
Strength of Evidence for Clinical Assumptions, DOrth. Dentofacial Ortholi 1998;
113:663-11
7. Soft Tissue Dysfunction: a missing clue when treating malocclusions. German O.
Ramirez-Yanez, Chris Farrell. International Journal of Functional Orthopedics
(2005)

Ref P – Chiropractics and Breastfeeding
1. Alcantara J, Anderson R. Chiropractic care of a pediatric patient with symptoms
associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease, fuss-cry-irritability with sleep
disorder syndrome and irritable infant syndrome of musculoskeletal origin. J
Can Chirop Assoc. 2008 Dec;52(4):248-55.
2. Alcantara J1, Alcantara JD, Alcantara J. The chiropractic care of infants with colic:
a systematic review of the literature. Explore (NY) 2011 May-Jun;7(3):168-74.
doi: 10.1016/j.explore.2011.02.00.
3. Gleberzon BJ1, Arts J, Mei A, McManus EL. The use of spinal manipulative therapy
for pediatric health conditions: a systematic review of the literature. J Can
Chiropr Ass. 2012 Jun;56(2):128-41.
4. Holleman AC, Nee J, Knaap SF. Chiropractic management of breast-feeding
difficulties: a case report. J Chirop Med. 2011 Sep;10(3):199-203. doi:
10.1016/j.jcm.2011.01.010. Epub 2011 Aug 9.
5. Marchand AM1, Miller JE, Mitchell C. Diagnosis and chiropractic treatment of
infant headache based on behavioral presentation and physical findings: a
retrospective series of 13 cases J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2009 Oct; 32(8):682-
6. doi: 10.1016/j.jmpt.2009.08.026.
6. Miller JE1, Miller L, Sulesund AK, Yevtushenko A. Contribution of chiropractic
therapy to resolving suboptimal breastfeeding: a case series of 114 infants. J
Manipulative Physiol Ther . 2009 Oct;32(8):670-4. doi:
10.1016/j.jmpt.2009.08.023.
7. Miller JE1, Newell D, Bolton JE. Efficacy of chiropractic manual therapy on infant
colic: a pragmatic single-blind, randomized controlled trial. J Manipulative
Physiol Ther. 2012 Oct; 35 (8) : 6007
8. Tow J , Vallone S. Development of an Integrative Relationship in the Care of the
Breastfeeding Newborn: Lactation Consultant and Chiropractor. Journal of
Clinical Chiropractic Pediatrics Volume 10, No. 1, June 2009 626-632
9. Van Poecke AJ1, Cunliffe C. Chiropractic treatment for primary nocturnal
enuresis: a case series of 33 consecutive patients. Manipulative Physiol
Ther. 2009 Oct;32(8):675-81. doi: 10.1016/j.jmpt.2009.08.019.

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